Lazarus для linux как установить



Установка Lazarus под Linux

16.03.2008
Костин Иван (shtorman@mail.ru)

Предисловие

В попытках установить и настроить Lazarus можно разбить лоб и сломать клавиатуру, но теперь можно обойтись и без членовредительства. Большинство материала по установке среды основывается на советах с форумов, а так же материалов на иностранном языке, статей же описывающих алгоритм установки и «тюнинга» единицы. После недели кропотливых трудов представляю Вам статью по установке среды разработки Lazarus и настройке русского языка в ней. Установка проводилась в ОС Mandriva 2008 LAR Edition из rpm-пакетов. Статья стала результатом прочтения таких статей как:

  • Установка Lazarus и Free Pascal Compiler в Linux и Windows (26.08.2004 Смирнов Сергей)http://freepascal.ru/;
  • Lazarus IDE(Ivan A-R 11.10.2006 16:51)http://iar.spb.ru/.

Ссылки на ресурсы


Установка

Перед установкой самой среды разработки Lazarus, необходимо установить следующие пакеты:

  • fpc-2.2.0-0.i386.rpm — компилятора FPC;
  • fpc-src-2.2.0-071105.i386.rpm – исходники FPC.

После этого можно запустить установку lazarus-0.9.24-0.i386.rpm. В ходе проверки зависимостей, инсталятор попросит доустановить еще несколько пакетов:

Все они есть на инсталяционном диске Mandriva 2008 LAR Edition.

В результате установки в Меню KDE, в разделе Разработка->Среды разработки, появиться пункт Lazarus.

Запуск Lazarus

При запуске в интерфейсе программы мы вместо названий пунктов меню наблюдаем иероглифы:


Рис. 1. Первый запуск среды Lazarus после установки.

В общем виде командная строка должна выглядеть так:

Теперь окно приложения выглядит более сносно, есть русский текст, но выполнять такие манипуляции каждый раз не очень удобно.


Рис. 2. Запуск среды Lazarus после установки языковой локалии в русский текст.

При дальнейшем рассмотрении все же не отображаются русские символы в заголовках форм, и в некоторых других формах самой среды попрежнему отображаются иероглифы.


Рис. 3. Проблемы с отображением русских символов в заголовке форм

Сборка Lazarus

Для решения этих проблем необходимо пересобрать Lazarus с поддержкой необходимого интерфейса (gtk, gtk2, win32/win64, qt, carbon . ).

Для этого открываем меню Интерфейс->Настройка сборки Lazarus


Рис. 4. Окно «Настройка сборки Lazarus»

Переключившись на вкладку «Расширенные параметры сборки» можно настроить то, что мы будем cобирать, а что нет, и с использованием какого интерфейса.


Рис.5. Вкладка «Расширенные параметры сборки»

Сборка Примеров не является жизненно важной для среды разработки в целом, но занимает время. Так, что сборку примеров можно отключить, если они понадобятся их можно будет собрать позднее. Здесь мы выбираем gtk 2 и отключаем Примеры (Action = None).

После чего нажимаем «Собрать».

Ошибки в ходе сборки Lazarus

В ходе сборки может возникнуть ошибка:

/usr/bin/ld: cannot find-lgdk_pixbuf-2.0

/usr/lib/lazarus/ide/lazarus.pp(114,1) Error: Error while linking

Для решения проблемы необходимо установить пакет libgdk_pixbuf2.0_0-devel, который потребует установку следующих пакетов:

В ходе сборки может возникнуть ошибка:

/usr/bin/ld: cannot find-lgtk-x11-2.0

/usr/lib/lazarus/ide/lazarus.pp(114,1)Error: Error while linking

Для решения проблемы необходимо установить пакет libgtk+2.0_0-devel, который потребует установку следующих пакетов:

Заключение

После удачной сборки Lazarus перезапуститься. Закройте приложение и запустите его самостоятельно из Меню КДЕ, Разработка->Среды разработки, пункт меню Lazarus.


Рис.6. Окно среды Lazarus после сборки с gtk 2.

Источник

Installing Lazarus

Contents

Overview

For people who simply want to install Lazarus and start using it for programming, the easiest approach is to download and install a recent, reasonably stable binary release (such as a Linux «.rpm» package, a Windows «.exe» installer, or a macOS «.dmg» disk image or installer «.pkg» package).

For those who want to participate in the development of the compiler or the Lazarus IDE, or for those who want the most up-to-date tools, an installation from source files is necessary.

The Lazarus IDE provides two main parts:

  • LCL — the Lazarus Component Library
  • IDE — the RAD tool itself

These in turn are dependent on:

  • FPC — the Free Pascal Compiler
  • FCL — the Free Pascal Component library, containing most of the non-graphic components used by the Lazarus IDE.

Lazarus system requirements

  1. A Free Pascal Compiler, packages, and sources. (*Important*: of the same version/date)
  2. A supported widget set: Win32/Win64 The native Win32 API can be used, or the Qt widgetset. Linux/BSD GTK+ 2.x or Qt : Most Linux distributions and *BSDs already install the GTK+ 2.x libraries. You can also find them at http://www.gtk.org.
    Qt is also supported with all distributions (auto installed if you prefer KDE). macOS You need the Apple Xcode developer tools. For macOS versions before 10.15 (Catalina), the 32 bit Carbon or 64 bit Cocoa widget sets can be used.
    For macOS 10.15 onwards, the 64 bit Cocoa widget set must be used as all 32 bit support has been removed by Apple.
    Qt can be used too, but it requires much more effort.

The Qt widget set is supported on Linux 32/64, Win 32/64, macOS 32/64, FreeBSD 32/64, Haiku and embedded Linux (qtopia) platforms. For more details about the installation of Qt, see the Qt Interface article.

Operating system specific guides

  • Remember that the Free Pascal Compiler and the Lazarus IDE are separate products, you almost certainly need to install FPC, FPC Source and Lazarus (maybe in that order!).
  • Some people recommended using the fpcUP updater-installer for first time users of Lazarus, which installs Free Pascal and Lazarus in one go into a single subdirectory structure (

    FreeBSD

    Haiku

    Linux

    See Installing Lazarus on Linux which covers most of what you need for most Linux Distributions.

    • The command to start Lazarus from a console is startlazarus. If you installed it from a Debian package, you should have a Lazarus menu entry under Application/Programming.
    • Issue: there is an ambiguity with a program also called «lazarus» from a tct package available for Ubuntu.
    • For a fully working Lazarus installation, older versions of the FPC compiler, FPC source or Lazarus can be a problem if present.
    • Some people recommended using fpcUP updater-installer for first time users of Lazarus, which installs Free Pascal and Lazarus in one go into a single subdirectory structure (

    Some distribution specific pages exist, but they may not be as up to date as the Installing Lazarus on Linux guide.

    Ubuntu/Debian Linux notes

    • The Debian Testing Repository, unlike Ubuntu Releases, often contains a current or near current version of FPC and Lazarus. Feedback is needed and appreciated; please send your comments to Carlos Laviola
    • Building debs the easy way — A possible way to get a current working installation of Lazarus is to download and build your own .deb packages by following the instructions at How to setup a FPC and Lazarus Ubuntu repository

    macOS

    Raspbian

    Windows

    Multiple Lazarus installs

    Please see Multiple Lazarus for details on having more than one Lazarus version installed on one system. We cover issues that can arise due to multiple Lazarus installs here, because they can also happen when installing over a previous version.

    Troubleshooting

    Troubleshooting details that should (hopefully) be applicable across platforms may be found in the article Installation Troubleshooting.

    Lazarus FAQ

    The Lazarus FAQ — Frequently Asked Questions — page is available here.

    Источник

    Installing Lazarus

    Contents

    Overview

    For people who simply want to install Lazarus and start using it for programming, the easiest approach is to download and install a recent, reasonably stable binary release (such as a Linux «.rpm» package, a Windows «.exe» installer, or a macOS «.dmg» disk image or installer «.pkg» package).

    For those who want to participate in the development of the compiler or the Lazarus IDE, or for those who want the most up-to-date tools, an installation from source files is necessary.

    The Lazarus IDE provides two main parts:

    • LCL — the Lazarus Component Library
    • IDE — the RAD tool itself

    These in turn are dependent on:

    • FPC — the Free Pascal Compiler
    • FCL — the Free Pascal Component library, containing most of the non-graphic components used by the Lazarus IDE.

    Lazarus system requirements

    1. A Free Pascal Compiler, packages, and sources. (*Important*: of the same version/date)
    2. A supported widget set: Win32/Win64 The native Win32 API can be used, or the Qt widgetset. Linux/BSD GTK+ 2.x or Qt : Most Linux distributions and *BSDs already install the GTK+ 2.x libraries. You can also find them at http://www.gtk.org.
      Qt is also supported with all distributions (auto installed if you prefer KDE). macOS You need the Apple Xcode developer tools. For macOS versions before 10.15 (Catalina), the 32 bit Carbon or 64 bit Cocoa widget sets can be used.
      For macOS 10.15 onwards, the 64 bit Cocoa widget set must be used as all 32 bit support has been removed by Apple.
      Qt can be used too, but it requires much more effort.

    The Qt widget set is supported on Linux 32/64, Win 32/64, macOS 32/64, FreeBSD 32/64, Haiku and embedded Linux (qtopia) platforms. For more details about the installation of Qt, see the Qt Interface article.

    Operating system specific guides

    • Remember that the Free Pascal Compiler and the Lazarus IDE are separate products, you almost certainly need to install FPC, FPC Source and Lazarus (maybe in that order!).
    • Some people recommended using the fpcUP updater-installer for first time users of Lazarus, which installs Free Pascal and Lazarus in one go into a single subdirectory structure (

      FreeBSD

      Haiku

      Linux

      See Installing Lazarus on Linux which covers most of what you need for most Linux Distributions.

      • The command to start Lazarus from a console is startlazarus. If you installed it from a Debian package, you should have a Lazarus menu entry under Application/Programming.
      • Issue: there is an ambiguity with a program also called «lazarus» from a tct package available for Ubuntu.
      • For a fully working Lazarus installation, older versions of the FPC compiler, FPC source or Lazarus can be a problem if present.
      • Some people recommended using fpcUP updater-installer for first time users of Lazarus, which installs Free Pascal and Lazarus in one go into a single subdirectory structure (

      Some distribution specific pages exist, but they may not be as up to date as the Installing Lazarus on Linux guide.

      Ubuntu/Debian Linux notes

      • The Debian Testing Repository, unlike Ubuntu Releases, often contains a current or near current version of FPC and Lazarus. Feedback is needed and appreciated; please send your comments to Carlos Laviola
      • Building debs the easy way — A possible way to get a current working installation of Lazarus is to download and build your own .deb packages by following the instructions at How to setup a FPC and Lazarus Ubuntu repository

      macOS

      Raspbian

      Windows

      Multiple Lazarus installs

      Please see Multiple Lazarus for details on having more than one Lazarus version installed on one system. We cover issues that can arise due to multiple Lazarus installs here, because they can also happen when installing over a previous version.

      Troubleshooting

      Troubleshooting details that should (hopefully) be applicable across platforms may be found in the article Installation Troubleshooting.

      Lazarus FAQ

      The Lazarus FAQ — Frequently Asked Questions — page is available here.

      Источник

      Installing Lazarus on Linux

      Contents

      Introduction

      This page is about installing FPC and Lazarus on a Linux system. Its intended for new and ‘regular’ users, it does not cover some very advanced methods and concentrates on current releases. Linux users should think of FPC and Lazarus as being two distinct but related processes, FPC does not change much, on the other hand, you will probably want to update your Lazarus install or perhaps install multiple Lazarus versions. Mixing the install methods, especially after V2.0 may cause problems so please read carefully.

      Notes about terms used on this page —

      • We refer to various downloadable files such as fpc_something — you should replace the ‘something’ with whats appropriate for your system, for example, early 2019 using a DEB based 64bit distro it might be fpc-laz_3.0.4-1_amd64.deb. Mid 2021 lazarus-something.deb is lazarus-project_2.0.12-0_amd64.deb.
      • Package Manager means a range of things on different different Linux systems. While we give command line examples, thats just because its easier to write. You will get the same result if you use your favourite GUI Tool such as Synaptic, Ubuntu Software Centre or YaST2. Maybe try double clicking on a downloaded package in your file manager.
      • What ever Package manager tool you use, make sure you are using one that resolves dependencies (that is, it also installs thing that are required by the main package you are installing), most GUI apps do. You should avoid using tools like dpkg or rpm and instead use apt or yum depending on your flavour of Linux.

      Required Linux packages

      According to forum member «MarkMLl», required Debian packages for Lazarus are:

      • build-essential
      • gdb (see below)
      • libgpm-dev (formerly libgpmg1-dev)
      • libncurses5-dev
      • libncursesw5-dev

      Additionally, some distribution may also require appmenu-gtk2-module. If you find starting Lazarus has a 20 odd second delay, do try this additional package. Seems to be a particular problem on Ubuntu.

      Debugger

      Linux (and Windows) users on Intel or AMD processors can use fpdebug backend (or, more correctly, FPDebug internal Dwarf-Debugger) and for most users thats a good choice. Its reported to be faster and in some respects, more feature rich than gdb. And its bundled in with Lazarus.

      If its not auto selected (perhaps because you also have gdb installed), in Lazarus, Tool->Options->Debugger->Debugger-Backend. Click the «Change Type» button and select «FPDebug internal Dwarf-Debugger».

      Other platforms, or perhaps users with specific needs ( see https://forum.lazarus.freepascal.org/index.php/topic,55131.msg417949.html#msg417949 ) will need to stick with gdb.

      Make a Choice

      You do need to decide, early on, where you will be getting your Lazarus install from. You can, at any stage change your mind but at the cost of some backtracking. We don’t recomend you get your FPC and Lazarus install kits from different places, its sometimes possible but sometimes unreliable. Broadly, your choices are —

      • Use your Package Manager to install both FPC and Lazarus. This means you are locked into the version of Lazarus that your distribution maintainers offer. Due to distro and Lazarus release cycles being out of sync, at any one time, its unlikely that your distribution will have the latest release of Lazarus. And many users do find those new releases attractive. You can install only one version of Lazarus under this model. But on the other hand, using the package manager approach is very easy and probably suits casual users.
      • Use the pre compiled packages (both FPC and Lazarus) made available by the FPC/Lazarus Team at SourceForge. Here you will find a wide choice of matched versions but you can only install one version at a time. The install process is still very easy ! This is possibly the best bet for new users.
      • Install FPC from either your Package Manager or SourceForge and then download the Lazarus source code and compile it yourself. May take a touch longer but is almost as easy and you do end up with the ability to add extra Lazarus installs, perhaps a ‘production’ version and a version based on the next release candidate. Or an old version to work on legacy code. In addition, you can easily make your own changes to the Lazarus Component Library, maybe just debug statements, maybe additional features you can feed back to help improve Lazarus further.
      • Use FPCUPdeluxe — it can install a range of versions of both FPC and Lazarus for you without requiring you to understand the underlying structure.

      The Package Manager Model

      If you are happy with the versions offered by your distribution this might be the way to go. Almost all Linux distributions come with some sort of Package Manager, you are probably familiar with your’s. Between then, the DEB and RPM based package systems represent much of the Linux community. And if you soon run into the limitations of this model, your package manager will help you back out again. But first, check the version available. Look up ‘lazarus’ in your GUI Package Manager or do —

      Note the names as well as the versions, we need three packages, fpc-something, fpc-source-something and, finally lazarus_something. Assuming you distribution’s package has its dependencies set up correctly, all you need do is choose to install Lazarus in either your Package Manage GUI or do:

      • Some distro prepared packages do not include the tools necessary to add cross compiling to its capabilities. If you may want to cross compile in the future, please consider one of the next listed models.
      • Some distro package managers break Lazarus up in small ‘chunks’, by default you get the GTK2 chunks. If you plan to use Qt5 also install libqt5pas-dev and lcl-qt5. You can make Qt5 apps using the GTK2 IDE.
      • If you plan to work with GTK3, you will need to install libgtk-3-dev, its not declared as a dependency of Lazarus yet because the GTK3 interface is not, yet, complete.
      • If you use Debian Bullseye, you should consider getting Lazarus (2.2.0) from Bullseye-Backports, there is an annoying bug in the main repo version that affects IDE rebuilding. Other Debian based distros will probably pick up the Backport or Testing version and they will be fine.

      FPC and Lazarus from SourceForge

      If your Package Manager cannot offer you the correct version of FPC then SourceForge can ! But be prepared for your package manager to complain about being bypassed, just insist you know what you are doing !

      All packages can be found at https://sourceforge.net/projects/lazarus/files/ , if you want just FPC, you will find it down in the corresponding Lazarus release directory.

      Navigate down, select the appropriate packages, again, fpc_something, fpc-src_something and lazarus_something, save them locally and install. WARNING, very important, this catches many users out ! Like most Linux packages, these packages have dependencies, you must install using a tool that resolves dependencies. Commands like «dpkg -i fpc_something.deb» will, most definitely leave an incomplete installation !

      Further, you might need to manually install gdb, the GNU debugger if you are not going to use fpdebug. A debugger is not absolutely essential but it makes life a lot easier. If you plan to work with GTK3, or Qt5 you will need to manually install libgtk-3-dev or libqt5pas-dev.

      On a DEB based System. On a older DEB based system, you almost certainly should use gdebi to install any downloaded DEB. It might already be installed, if not, install it first. You can use gdebi at the command line or double click a downloaded package in your file manager. But remember, most important, install first fpc, then fpc-src, then and only then, Lazarus. On more recent deb based systems, the apt command can resolve dependencies, you could then use this command (but note the very important ./ in front of each deb file, if you don’t specify the exact location of your downloaded deb file, it will go and get the repository based one) —

      in mid 2022 for example, you might download from https://sourceforge.net/projects/lazarus/files/Lazarus%20Linux%20amd64%20DEB/Lazarus%202.2.2/ and move the files to a suitable place and then type —

      On an RPM Based System Installing downloaded packages at the command line as shown below. (Author is unaware of the GUI Package tool that does, in fact, resolve dependencies) —

      Note : later RPM based systems use the dnf command instead of yum, same syntax.

      Build Lazarus from Source

      Surprisingly easy, but that is because Lazarus routinely rebuilds itself, eg when a Lazarus package is added. So, its also a useful test that all required dependencies are really present. It allows you to have multiple versions of Lazarus installed (see —pcp=xxx) and both Lazarus and LCL are in your own disk space so no write issues. However, you will need to manually add an entry in your OS Menu system and, perhaps distinctive Lazarus icons.

      Note: Remember, FPC and Lazarus are two, separate products. Before thinking about building Lazarus, you must have a working and tested FPC. Mid 2022 FPC 3.2.2 was what you probably should be using. Some distributions may not have it for awhile so, you need to install it from one of the ways documented on https://wiki.lazarus.freepascal.org/Installing_the_Free_Pascal_Compiler#Linux To labour the point, if the version of Lazarus in your distro repository is out of date, so too will its FPC be.

      Note: Dependencies — First and foremost, a suitable version of FPC, see above. You probably want to build the GTK2 version of Lazarus, most distros will have gtk2 preinstalled but you may need to install its dev libraries. So, install libx11-dev and libgtk2.0-dev, that will bring gtk2 itself along if necessary. Possibly (see above) gdb. If building a QT5 version, you will need libqt5pas-dev. If you are going to work with GTK3, you will need to install libgtk-3-dev

      Note: Systems with limited memory, such as the Raspberry Pi may need you to increase swap space to at least a Gig before building Lazarus.

      The example here pulls down what some consider ‘brave’, the trunk or main development version. The same process can get you releases, fixes or release candidates. Note this is not a script, it is a series of commands, to be copied one at a time, so you can see whats happening !

      Get the Lazarus Source

      There are two different ways to download the Lazarus Source (since August 2021) from gitlab, in fact there are several variations of each possible too) —

      As a Zip/Tar ball.

      If you just want a quick snapshot of trunk, or perhaps want to test the release candidate (and that a great idea) then you may not need access to the developer capabilities that a Git install provides. So, you don’t need any git tools on your local machine and its quick and easy. While you can do it through the Gitlab web interface from https://gitlab.com/freepascal.org/lazarus/lazarus its easier to describe with command line tools, start by cd-ing to a suitable place, I use $HOME/bin/Lazarus, then —

      Some recommended downloads

      You can see all these options, and lot more on the gitlab site by pulling down the dropbox, left of center, near the top of the page.

      As a git (or svn) repository.

      On the other hand, if you will be contributing patches, fixes, to Lazarus, or tracking down bugs by bisecting recent releases, then a proper git install is undoubtedly the way forward. You will need git installed locally, again, go to a suitable directory and:

      The above svn invocation is more complex due to a bug in many versions of Subversion.

      This is a bit slower process the first time, later you will use git/svn tools to update it and thats a lot faster.

      You can now start Lazarus with the command ./lazarus or, if you are in another directory, something like —

      You can add that directory to your path, put a script in

      /bin to start it or whatever, its Linux, you choose ! Here is an example script to put in your personal bin directory, note it includes FPC, if thats already on your path, leave that line out —

      Menu items and Icons

      Building from source leaves you without the nice main menu entries and pretty icons that people who installed using packages get. But even that is easy to fix. You need two things, a suitable icon and an appropriate desktop file. Here is how —

      First, download a Lazarus icon to use (its just an image, does not need to be from right version of Lazarus),

      Then create a desktop file, eg

      /.local/share/applications/lazarus.desktop that looks a bit like this

      You will almost certainly have to change some things and might want to change more —

      • Name= — This is what will appear in your main menu.
      • Exec= — This is the path to your executable lazarus, in my case I keep my various installs in

      /bin/Lazarus, yours may be different. Its unlikely your user name is ‘myusername’ so please change it. Note that I also include a —pcp command line switch, this tells Lazarus which set of config files to use. If you have multiple installs of Lazarus, make multiple desktop files and make sure each uses a separate set of config files. Most important ! You might like to point this item to the little bash script mentioned above, its an easy way of ensuring Lazarus gets the FPC path setting.

    • Icon= The full path to the icon we downloaded earlier. You don’t have to put the icon there, but its a good place.
    • Categories= This line determines which sub-menu Lazarus will show up under. As shown, its under «Programing» on my system, «GNOME;Utility» will pop it up under «Accessories».

    What does the BigIDE argument to make do?

    The bigide make argument adds a bunch of packages to Lazarus that many find useful and cannot do without. The packages that are added are:

    • cairocanvas
    • chmhelp
    • datetimectrls
    • externhelp
    • fpcunit
    • fpdebug
    • instantfpc
    • jcf2
    • lazcontrols
    • lazdebuggers
    • lclextensions
    • leakview
    • macroscript
    • memds
    • onlinepackagemanager
    • pas2js
    • PascalScript
    • printers
    • projecttemplates
    • rtticontrols
    • sdf
    • sqldb
    • synedit
    • tachart
    • tdbf
    • todolist
    • turbopower_ipro
    • virtualtreeview

    The above list is sourced from the [Lazarus source directory]/IDE/Makefile.fpc and may be subject to change.

    Note that if you have not compiled your own Lazarus IDE with the bigide argument, you can install any of these packages yourself using the Lazarus IDE Package > Install/Uninstall Packages. dialog.

    FPCUPdeluxe

    Another approach is fpcupdeluxe, its an application that you run on your computer to manage your FPC / Lazarus install. Its very suited to people who just want to get a working install quickly and are happy to allow fpcupdeluxe to do the thinking for them.

    See Also

    Other Relevent Pages

    • Installing the Free Pascal Compiler
    • Generic Installing Lazarus
    • Install the help system, Installing Help in the IDE
    • A number of useful additions but in particular Unit/Identifier Dictionary, Cody.
    • Some useful tricks associated with the IDE IDE tricks

    Testing FPC installation

    See Testing the FPC Install for a very simple test that FPC is working.

    If that worked, well done ! Now proceed to installing Lazarus.

    Источник

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